The tragic loss of eight horses in trainer Gerry Carwood's barn near Keeneland on May 9 reminded farm managers and horse owners just how rapidly a barn fire can alter lives forever. The prospect of preventing fire in a wood structure that houses flammable feed, hay, and straw seems daunting, but experts say that a financial and time investment before a fire starts can help minimize losses.
“I was assistant manager on a farm for three years, and you don't think about it until something like this happens,” said Katherine Wheeler, consultant for National Throughbred Racing Association.
Simplex Grinnell, a company that specializes in safety equipment, is working with the NTRA to provide members with a resource to help prevent and plan for barn fires.
Tim Walker, equine account representative for Simplex Grinnell, said that requirements for fire safety equipment are often driven by tragedy. Fire codes became stricter and more enforced after the Beverly Hills Supper Club fire in 1977. The Kentucky blaze killed 165 people. There are strict codes for businesses, buildings of public gathering, and multi-family dwellings, but the requirements for farms and training barns are not well-defined and rarely enforced.
Preparedness for a barn fire is three-pronged: prevention, planning, and monitoring. Walker and Wheeler urge managers to think about checking their electrical systems, especially in older barns where wires may be exposed without conduit. Storage practices on the farm could use examination, too—it's best for hay and straw to be stored in a separate building from the one where the horses live, since those materials can spontaneously catch flame under certain temperature and moisture conditions. If separate storage isn't possible, it's best to keep bales on the ground rather than in a loft.
“Sometimes you'll go into a barn and see corn oil right next to hay. That's a big no-no,” said Wheeler.
Space heaters are another big problem, especially the older ones commonly found in tack rooms on the backstretch.
Walker also recommends implementing a no-smoking policy in all barns. More than 50 percent of all residential fires start as a result of smoking-related products, whether those are matches, cigarette butts, or falling ashes. Many times, the fire starts long after the smoker has moved on to another location.
Another key to reduction in damage and loss of life is conducting meetings with the fire marshal and providing the nearest emergency responders with detailed maps of the farm and individual buildings. This can help firefighters to provide in an immediate on-site response to the problem and work to keep livestock safe. Larger facilities like WinStar and Shadwell have named and clearly labeled their internal roads, which helps emergency crews navigate. Clear labeling of barns by name or number can also save time and confusion.
Walker says that having an evacuation plan is not enough—it's best for employees and animals to practice the plan annually. It is also important to provide this training as part of a new employee orientation program. Keep halters and leads readily available by each stall, and have a designated spot for securing horses after evacuation. Many people don't know, if let loose after evacuation, horses often run back into a burning barn. Walker has heard of cases where horses on turnout near a flaming building panic and try to enter the building also.
Be sure employees know the locations of fire extinguishers, and that the extinguishers are up to date on their inspections. The chemicals in the extinguishers settle over time, preventing the devices from working properly. Annual training on the proper use of fire extinguishers is also important. Many fires can be extinguished with a portable fire extinguisher before the fire spreads.
Walker recommends the installation of a sprinkler system and smoke detectors in barns. A sprinkler system can control the spread of flames and often extinguish a fire before any loss of life.
“It's amazing, going into some of these large, well-known farms that have a detection system, but the lack of preventative maintenance causes the detectors to get dirt and dust in them causing false alarms. As a result, many systems are powered off versus maintained to eliminate the false alarms. I know it's a really dusty environment, but there are solutions,” said the NTRA's Wheeler.
Simplex Grinnell is offering free walk-throughs to NTRA members interested in improving their safety program.
Horseman Tip Sheet for Barn Fire Prevention
- Know what fire departments are closest to your facility.
- Invite the nearest fire department to your facility for a tour. Provide them with a map of your barns and routes in case of an emergency.
- Have an emergency list of other barns in the area that may be able to assist you in the event of a fire.
- Provide firefighting training for your staff. Familiarize yourself and staff with how to use a fire extinguisher.
- Get together with your neighbors and share your fire safety plans with them. Even the ones without horses. They may mean the difference in saving your horses lives if no one else is around.
- Post “No Smoking” signs at all entrances to the barns.
- Make sure all doors are able to open or shut in emergency situations.
- Install smoke detectors.
- Install automatic sprinkler systems in all barns and stables where animals are housed.
- Install a fire alarm system to notify all involved if a barn or stable catches fire. You need a 24/7 monitoring company to notify you and the fire department in an emergency situation when no one is around.
- Test fire extinguishers annually to ensure they are properly charged and remove all expired extinguishers.
- Establish an escape plan for horses and humans.
- Conduct fire drills to execute the escape plans.
- Know your horses and what to expect from them in a stressful situation.
- Tour other farms with sprinkler and fire alarm systems.
- Add cameras on the property
*If you want to update your barn for fire safety in the best way possible, please consider retrofitting with a sprinkler system. There is no better way of protecting your horses (and any humans in your barn) than with either a wet or dry sprinkler system installed by a licensed fire protection systems installer. No matter how many alerting systems you install, if there's no one around to evacuate your horses within the first few minutes of the fire starting, their chances of escaping are very poor. Sprinkler systems work!!
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