Triple Crown Training Patterns

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Either they don’t make ‘em like they used to or don’t train ‘em like they used to. Thoroughbreds going for horse racing’s Triple Crown aren’t given nearly as much work between races as their predecessors were back in the 1930s, ‘40s, or even the ‘70s and ‘80s.

After hearing trainer Doug O’Neill say he wasn’t going to breeze Kentucky Derby and Preakness winner I’ll Have Another in the weeks leading up to the Belmont Stakes, I decided to look into the training patterns of some past Triple Crown winners and horses that came to Belmont Park in hopes of completing the sweep.

A big thank you to the staff of the Keeneland library for keeping such valuable information and sharing it for this kind of research.

Some trainers have said the one- to two-mile gallops often given to modern-day horses are just as important as breezes or timed workouts used to be. I don’t know if they’re right or wrong. You’d have to ask the horse.

I do know contemporary runners face the starter fewer times per year and have shorter careers than horses from the not too distant past, much less those from the 1930s and ‘40s.

I doubt, for example, that we’ll ever see another horse like Calumet Farm’s Citation, the 1948 Triple Crown winner who as  a 3-year-old raced four times in February and three times in April – including the Derby Trial Stakes on April 27 – before capturing the Kentucky Derby on May 1. He won the Preakness two weeks later, but instead of simply working his way toward the June 12 Belmont, the son of Bull Lea was sent by trainer Jimmy Jones to Garden State Park where he won the Jersey Stakes on May 29 by 11 lengths.

“People thought I was crazy,” Jones later said. But he wasn’t finished with Citation’s Belmont preparations.

One week after the Jersey Stakes, on June 5, Citation worked an easy half-mile at Belmont Park in :48 flat. On June 8 he breezed a mile in 1:40. Then, on the morning of June 11, one day before the Belmont, Jones had Citation breeze six furlongs, going the distance in a quick 1:12 3/5. He won the Belmont by eight lengths in wire-to-wire fashion.

Citation raced and won nine more times that season, ending the year with 19 wins from 20 starts.

Sir Barton is listed as the first Triple Crown winner, but the series wasn’t recognized until 1930, when Gallant Fox, a son of Sir Gallahad III, was victorious for Belair Stud and trainer James Fitzsimmons. He won the Preakness on May 9, the Derby on May 17 (their order was reversed then) and the Belmont on June 7. On June 3, the colt worked nine furlongs in 1:49 3/5 (which nearly equalled an American record), then breezed a half-mile the day before the race, covering the distance in :46 3/5 under jockey Earl Sande. Gallant Fox won the Belmont by three lengths.

Omaha, a son of Gallant Fox, came along next, winning the 1935 Triple Crown for the same connections as his sire. The May 4 Derby and May 11 Preakness were just a week apart, and there was nearly a month until the June 8 Belmont. So Fitzsimmons ran Omaha in the one-mile Withers on May 25 as a prep (he finished second), then blew him out five furlongs in 1:00 1/5 at Aqueduct on June 7 before shipping over to Belmont Park. He won the final leg of the Triple Crown by a length and a half.

War Admiral was not a champion at two, winning just half of his six starts, but Man o’ War’s best racing son won all eight of his starts as a 3-year-old in 1937, including the Triple Crown. After the May 8 Derby and May 15 Preakness, trainer George Conway had three weeks to prepare Sam Riddle’s colt for the Belmont.

On May 19, just four days after beating Pompoon by a head at Pimlico, War Admiral breezed a mile and three-eighths in 2:22. Seven days later he worked a mile and a half in 2:34 3/5, and on June 2, three days before the race, he worked another mile and a half, this time just a shade quicker, in 2:34 2/5. He set a new track of 2:28 3/5 winning the Belmont by three lengths.

Whirlaway, a difficult colt for Calumet Farm trainer Ben Jones to condition because of his quirkiness, raced 16 times at two, winning seven. He raced 20 times at three, winning 13 starts including eight stakes, the 1941 Triple Crown races among them. The Kentucky Derby fell on May 3 and the Preakness May 10. With the Belmont on June 7, Jones had plenty of time to get the son of Blenheim II ready for the Test of the Champion.

In a 10-day stretch from May 26 to June 4, Whirlaway breezed four times: four furlongs in :48 3/5 on May 26; four furlongs on a sloppy track in :51 on May 29; nine furlongs in 1:52 1/5 on May 30; and 10 furlongs in 2:02 2/5 on June 4. Whirlaway was plenty fit as he captured the Triple Crown’s final leg by 2 ½ lengths.

Two years later, Count Fleet won the 1943 Triple Crown for trainer G.D. Cameron and Mrs. John D. Hertz. After victories in the May 1 Derby and May 8 Preakness, Cameron ran the son of Reigh Count in the Withers on May 22 as a prep for the June 5 Belmont, where all but two opponents were scared away.

After the Withers, Count Fleet breezed four times in nine days: 10 furlongs in 2:07 4/5 on a muddy track May 27; three furlongs in :34 4/5 on May 31; 10 furlongs in 2:04 on June 1; and three furlongs in :35 on June 4. He won the Belmont by 25 lengths in 2:28 1/5.

King Ranch’s Assault won the 1946 Triple Crown and trainer Max Hirsch wasn’t afraid to send him out for serious exercise as the Belmont approached.  That year’s Derby fell on May 4, the Preakness was May 11, and the Belmont June 1. Assault, a son of Bold Venture, worked four times in eight days leading up to the Belmont: a mile in 1:44 3/5 on May 22; 10 furlongs in 2:05 3/5 on May 25; four furlongs in :52 on a sloppy track on May 28; and a mile and a half in 2:32 3/5 on a good track May 29. He won the Belmont by three lengths under a confident ride from Willie Mehrtens.

There was a 25-year gap between Citation’s Triple Crown and Secretariat’s tour de force in 1973. Multiple Eclipse Award-winning author William Nack documents Secretariat’s career with great detail in his book, “Big Red of Meadow Stable: Secretariat, Making of a Champion.”

Here is the short version of how Lucien Laurin trained the Bold Ruler colt in the three weeks between the May 19 Preakness and June 9 Belmont: six furlongs in 1:12 1/5 on a sloppy track May 27; one mile in 1:34 4/5 on June 1; four furlongs in :46 3/5 on June 6.

Secretariat won the Belmont “like a tremendous machine,” drawing off by 31 lengths and setting a track record that stands to this day: 12 furlongs in 2:24.

Seattle Slew ran his unbeaten string to nine races after winning the 1977 Triple Crown for trainer Billy Turner. Twelve days after taking the Preakness, the Bold Reasoning colt worked a mile in 1:38 2/5. Five days later he went six furlongs in 1:11 3/5. Turner then blew him out three furlongs in :35 4/5 one day before the race.

Affirmed, 1978 Triple Crown winner, only worked twice in the three weeks between the Preakness and Belmont. Patrice Wolfson, who owned the horse with husband Lou in the name of Harbor View Farm, recalled recently that Affirmed “started to lighten up before the Belmont. He was not at his peak, so Laz (trainer Barrera) had to train him very carefully – to do a little bit but not too much.”

In fact, the flashy son of Exclusive Native had a very similar workout schedule to Seattle Slew. Like Slew, Affirmed worked one mile 12 days after winning the Preakness, getting the distance in 1:40 1/5 on June 1. Six days later he went an easy five furlongs in 1:01. His mile and a half battle with Alydar was one of the greatest Belmont duels in history.

Since Affirmed’s triumph, we’ve had 11 horses try and fail to win the Belmont and complete a Triple Crown sweep. Here’s what they did in the three weeks between the Preakness and Belmont (workouts are at Belmont Park unless otherwise noted):

Spectacular Bid, 1979, after the May 19 Preakness: six furlongs in 1:14 on May 27 at Pimlico; seven furlongs in 1:26 at Pimlico; one mile in 1:39 on a sloppy track at Belmont on June 4; three furlongs in :34 1/5 at Belmont. Third in Belmont Stakes June 9.

Pleasant Colony, 1981, after the May 16 Preakness: five furlongs in :59 4/5 on May 24; one mile in 1:39 2/5 on May 30;  four furlongs in :46 1/5 on June 3. Third in Belmont on June 6.

Alysheba, 1987, after the May 16 Preakness: one mile in 1:41 3/5 on May 25; one mile in 1:44 on May 31. Fourth in Belmont on June 6.

Sunday Silence, 1989, after the May 20 Preakness: three furlongs in 37 2/5 on May 26; one mile in 1:39 3/5 on May 31; three furlongs in :37 on June 6. Second in Belmont on June 10.

Silver Charm, 1997, after May 17 Preakness: six furlongs at Churchill Downs in 1:14 4/5 on May 28; five furlongs at Churchill Downs in 1:01 on June 3. Second in Belmont on June 7.

Real Quiet, 1998, after May 16 Preakness: five furlongs at Churchill Downs in :59 4/5 on May 28; five furlongs at Churchill Downs in 1:01 on June 2. Second in Belmont on June 6.

Charismatic, 1999, after May 15 Preakness: six furlongs in 1:16 2/5 at Churchill Downs on May 25; five furlongs at Churchill Downs in 1:00 2/5 on June 1. Third in Belmont on June 5.

War Emblem, 2002, after May 18 Preakness: five furlongs at Churchill Downs in 1:00 3/5 on May 29; five furlongs at Churchill Downs in 1:01 on June 4. Eighth in Belmont on June 8.

Funny Cide, 2003, after May 17 Preakness: five furlongs on muddy track in :59 2/5 on May 28; five furlongs in :57 4/5 on June 3. Third in Belmont on June 7.

Smarty Jones, 2004, after May 15 Preakness: seven furlongs in 1:29 1/5 at Philadelphia Park on May 28. Second in Belmont on June 5.

Big Brown, 2008, after May 17 Preakness: five furlongs in 1:00 on June 3. Pulled up in Belmont on June 7.

As Billy Turner, Seattle Slew’s trainer, said recently, horses are individuals and you have to adjust training philosophy to the horse. He recently was sought out by Doug O’Neill to share his Triple Crown experiences and to talk about I’ll Have Another. Turner seems suitably impressed.

“He’s just the kind of horse you can do anything with,” Turner said. “He has speed but he doesn’t have to use it.  So his training might be entirely different than it was for Slew. In Slew’s case, everything that we ever did with him, it was a day-to-day thing, more or less.  You couldn’t compare him with what’s going on with I’ll Have Another.  Two entirely different horses.”

And it appears we now are in an entirely different era when it comes to training horses for the Triple Crown.

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  • Larry Ensor

    Though Conquistador Cielo did not run in The Derby or the Preakness due to a minor leg issues I think it is worthy to note how Woody Stevens trained him leading up to the Belmont. Mainly his “prep” race in the Met Mile 6 days before the Belmont winning by 7 ½ lengths. Being a handicap race I am sure the fact that he only had to carry 111 lbs had a lot to do with Mr. Stevens decision to run the colt rather then work him. Don’t have the chart handy and don’t remember what others carried. I do remember cashing in both races.
    I had forgotten that the Derby and the Preakness were only a week apart at one time.

  • Larry Ensor

    Though Conquistador Cielo did not run in The Derby or the Preakness due to a minor leg issues I think it is worthy to note how Woody Stevens trained him leading up to the Belmont. Mainly his “prep” race in the Met Mile 6 days before the Belmont winning by 7 ½ lengths. Being a handicap race I am sure the fact that he only had to carry 111 lbs had a lot to do with Mr. Stevens decision to run the colt rather then work him. Don’t have the chart handy and don’t remember what others carried. I do remember cashing in both races.
    I had forgotten that the Derby and the Preakness were only a week apart at one time.

  • cuphorse

    Oh, they make them like they use to, they just don’t train them old timey any more! Just read some of the old training texts and you will get even more of an idea how much we have changed. The current mantra is to race and train them “fresh”.  The old timers had a totally different perspective on how to work horses. They were mostly brought up with them and knew that you had to work them to race them that distance. Now, the kiddies think they are racing quarter horses and want them fresh.  What a joke!

    • Jimculpepper

      Hear! Hear!

    • Larry Ensor

      It used to be a sport now it’s a business.

  • cuphorse

    Oh, they make them like they use to, they just don’t train them old timey any more! Just read some of the old training texts and you will get even more of an idea how much we have changed. The current mantra is to race and train them “fresh”.  The old timers had a totally different perspective on how to work horses. They were mostly brought up with them and knew that you had to work them to race them that distance. Now, the kiddies think they are racing quarter horses and want them fresh.  What a joke!

  • PhilP

    Excellent article……Lots of research….First article I actually printed….Thanks Ray

  • PhilP

    Excellent article……Lots of research….First article I actually printed….Thanks Ray

  • Jimculpepper

    Hear! Hear!

  • Racingwithbruno

    I only dream to have a time machine and go back and watch how each and every one of those horses, looked, moved, and exited those breezes and long gallop like works. Wow! Just to understand how horsemen thought and dealt with workouts, here, now we have guys that freak out if they have work five or six days after last work. There is much more ‘scared’ training (FEAR OF getting a horse hurt) or too many horsemen put horses in bubble wraps and don’t do anything and eventually hurt a horse. A wise trainer, Barry Abrams, said one morning: “they get hurt in the morning not in the afternoon”.

  • Racingwithbruno

    Great job Ray, I know tha took time and patience and thank you for sharing, now GoKINGS!

  • Racingwithbruno

    I only dream to have a time machine and go back and watch how each and every one of those horses, looked, moved, and exited those breezes and long gallop like works. Wow! Just to understand how horsemen thought and dealt with workouts, here, now we have guys that freak out if they have work five or six days after last work. There is much more ‘scared’ training (FEAR OF getting a horse hurt) or too many horsemen put horses in bubble wraps and don’t do anything and eventually hurt a horse. A wise trainer, Barry Abrams, said one morning: “they get hurt in the morning not in the afternoon”.

  • Racingwithbruno

    Great job Ray, I know tha took time and patience and thank you for sharing, now GoKINGS!

  • Cliff

    Great stuff Ray. One thing that might definitively answer the make’em/train’em argument would be to look at the training patterns of each horse’s competitors.
    Did Omaha have a similar training pattern to Firethorn? Did Lord Boswell have four works in eight days after finishing second to Assault in Baltimore before going flat in the Belmont? We know Empire Maker trained markedly different from Funny Cide, and some say that cost the latter the crown.
    It would probably entail even more research to reach something inconclusive, but this article is fun for showing the differences.

  • Cliff

    Great stuff Ray. One thing that might definitively answer the make’em/train’em argument would be to look at the training patterns of each horse’s competitors.
    Did Omaha have a similar training pattern to Firethorn? Did Lord Boswell have four works in eight days after finishing second to Assault in Baltimore before going flat in the Belmont? We know Empire Maker trained markedly different from Funny Cide, and some say that cost the latter the crown.
    It would probably entail even more research to reach something inconclusive, but this article is fun for showing the differences.

  • Lory

    I THINK THAT THE TRAINING METHODS ARE THE PROBLEM.Horses respond to work love it
    and usually are eager to go to track. the trick now that hurts racing is the breed to sell mentality . few sires are picked for their longetivity but rather for the speed . the babies are raised hot house style rather than as a herd . they are pampered growing up and lord forbid a scar from rough housing. stalled rather than windbreaks so they are soft. training regimine is toward speed for under tack sales. should be constant work toward lung and cardio with long work.  too much time between races so faster shorter works are the thing.
    sorry but the mega stables stop and kill horses and racing.  i have more respect for the claiming stables like Dougs,Art Sherman etc as those guys have to be horsemen first and foremost ,very few million dollar babies in their barns. they have to know horsemanship to survive and prosper. they get a bad rap as claimers tend to go bad but do they injure anymore horses than the carbon copies with their multi million dollar budgets. no way.
    the difference is that the mega stables shell out and ruin horses before they are seen so it gives them a better perception of having class.

    • Cpramsey71

      I dont know where your horses are raised, but here in Kentucky most foals are outside at night as soon as the weather permits….they will come inside in the morning to eat and be looked over, and then be turned back out late morning or early afternoon. This schedule continues until they are yearlings. If they are in a sale(say September) they will start being turned out at 7pm and come back in at 7am around June( for sunburn purposes). We will treat nicks and cuts, but they are not stalled for them….colts are separated at this time, but go on same schedule in paddocks, but fillies are normally in herds. Non sale horses are almost always kept in herds.
      There are a few operations that hot house, but not many…

    • Cass

       In Maryland we definately do not hot house our babies.  They come in to eat and be handled, then back in the fields to play and rough house and just be horses.  They stay out overnight also.  If they are soft it is not because of how they are raised.  As for claiming trainers, maybe they are good horsemen maybe not  but they piggyback on someone else having trained the horse originally and once that horse has got going and got some form they then step in.  My respect goes to horsemen that can develop a young horse.  So many factors involved though and of course ‘the horse makes the trainer’

  • Lory

    I THINK THAT THE TRAINING METHODS ARE THE PROBLEM.Horses respond to work love it
    and usually are eager to go to track. the trick now that hurts racing is the breed to sell mentality . few sires are picked for their longetivity but rather for the speed . the babies are raised hot house style rather than as a herd . they are pampered growing up and lord forbid a scar from rough housing. stalled rather than windbreaks so they are soft. training regimine is toward speed for under tack sales. should be constant work toward lung and cardio with long work.  too much time between races so faster shorter works are the thing.
    sorry but the mega stables stop and kill horses and racing.  i have more respect for the claiming stables like Dougs,Art Sherman etc as those guys have to be horsemen first and foremost ,very few million dollar babies in their barns. they have to know horsemanship to survive and prosper. they get a bad rap as claimers tend to go bad but do they injure anymore horses than the carbon copies with their multi million dollar budgets. no way.
    the difference is that the mega stables shell out and ruin horses before they are seen so it gives them a better perception of having class.

  • bob wisener

    well done, ray.

  • bob wisener

    well done, ray.

  • Larry Ensor

    It used to be a sport now it’s a business.

  • David

    Nice report.  It would be great to see what would happen with old school training methodology applied to current precocious, well-breed 2-year-olds.  How would runners fare (against the shake ‘n bake versions of today) in the TC series over a multi-year span?   Won’t happen ‘cause no one left with the stones to test.

  • David

    Nice report.  It would be great to see what would happen with old school training methodology applied to current precocious, well-breed 2-year-olds.  How would runners fare (against the shake ‘n bake versions of today) in the TC series over a multi-year span?   Won’t happen ‘cause no one left with the stones to test.

  • Cpramsey71

    I dont know where your horses are raised, but here in Kentucky most foals are outside at night as soon as the weather permits….they will come inside in the morning to eat and be looked over, and then be turned back out late morning or early afternoon. This schedule continues until they are yearlings. If they are in a sale(say September) they will start being turned out at 7pm and come back in at 7am around June( for sunburn purposes). We will treat nicks and cuts, but they are not stalled for them….colts are separated at this time, but go on same schedule in paddocks, but fillies are normally in herds. Non sale horses are almost always kept in herds.
    There are a few operations that hot house, but not many…

  • Cass

     In Maryland we definately do not hot house our babies.  They come in to eat and be handled, then back in the fields to play and rough house and just be horses.  They stay out overnight also.  If they are soft it is not because of how they are raised.  As for claiming trainers, maybe they are good horsemen maybe not  but they piggyback on someone else having trained the horse originally and once that horse has got going and got some form they then step in.  My respect goes to horsemen that can develop a young horse.  So many factors involved though and of course ‘the horse makes the trainer’

  • DAMOGZ

    I am greatful for your research and insight. Thank you!

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