The Jockey Workout: How Riders Get Fit After Injury

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Jockey Ramon Dominguez Jockey Ramon Dominguez

Following the advice of his doctors, Ramon Dominguez still hasn’t set a timetable for his return to the saddle following a skull injury sustained in a January 18 spill. Even after he’s declared physically sound to return to work, Dominguez will face another challenge—getting physically fit for riding.

But what does that mean, exactly? Not surprisingly, the art of being a jockey takes incredible strength but also requires riders to watch their weight. Conditioning after some time off ideally includes a balance between working out and bulking up.

Many riders find the best way to start is by jogging or swimming, both of which boost aerobic capacity.


“The category of strength that is required to ride a Thoroughbred is more stamina than overall brute strength. We have to stay perched on their back for different lengths of time, depending upon the distance of the race,” said Chris McCarron, former jockey and founder of the North American Racing Academy.

Jogging, especially if done on an incline, also strengthens a jockey’s all-important leg muscles. McCarron recalls Mike Smith, Alex Solis, David Flores and Joe Talamo running in the mountains above Santa Anita Park to keep fit—Solis with weights on his back to increase stamina.

Although Dominguez is still in physical therapy and not ready to condition for a return to the track, he said jogging will be an important element.

“I love running because I feel like it’s really a full workout and you’re exercising your upper body too,” he said.

Dominguez said he prefers to avoid rigorous work in the gym so he doesn’t put on too much extra muscle mass.

McCarron said toward the end of his career when he was riding less, he would hit the gym three times a week using small weights for many repetitions to boost muscular stamina.

At the North American Racing Academy, McCarron has his students ride Equicizers for 50 minutes at a time to hone their form, stamina, and balance.

Other riders, like Dominguez, use the Equicizer more as a quick workout on race day than a conditioning tool in the weeks leading to a return.

Students at the North American Racing Academy learn balance on equicizers (Photo David Stephenson)

Students at the North American Racing Academy learn balance on equicizers (Photo David Stephenson)

“I teach my students a very basic, very simple concept, and that is to minimize the degree of hindrance that we create on the horse’s back,” said McCarron.

That seamlessness requires a rider to instruct their mount in efficient balance and rhythm with the horse’s movement.

“I would say after a couple weeks of exercising hard, you’re pretty close to being as fit as you can be to riding races,” said Dominguez. “Nothing that you can do physically outside riding races, regardless of how close it is to the motion and all, will get you as fit as the actual race. I don’t know if the adrenaline has something to do with it, but riding the race is necessary to get to the top fitness level.”

Although it may not be obvious from the stands, a Thoroughbred uses rein tension to help keep its balance, creating a constant downward pull on the rider. As a result, jockeys must have extremely high forearm, hand, and core strength.

“We use virtually every muscle in our body when we’re riding a horse,” said McCarron.

Even their neck muscles.

“You put a helmet (typically weighing 1.5 pounds) on when you’re not fit and try to keep your head in a position where you can see where you’re going for a minute and a half; it doesn’t sound like a whole lot but it truly is,” McCarron said.

Like riders in other disciplines, some jockeys use yoga to improve balance and flexibility—both of which can reduce the severity of a fall and shorten recovery time after an injury. Some use yoga before or during a session in the sauna to stimulate extra sweating before weighing in.

NARA students build core strength (Photo David Stephenson)

NARA students build core strength (Photo David Stephenson)

As always for jockeys, maintaining the proper diet to nourish the body’s increasing workload without adding fat is a challenge. For Dominguez, being in full riding shape requires him to eat more calories in a day than what he needs off the track, but his appetite doesn’t change the moment he goes on lay-up. The key for him has been to distinguish between physical hunger and appetite, and to pile on the fruits and vegetables.

“It’s a very difficult balance that must be maintained,” said McCarron. “It’s individual but the key word is discipline.”

After keeping themselves in such top shape, Dominguez said jockeys can feel a loss in condition after just a few days away from the saddle—48 hours for him—but a high base level of fitness also makes it easier to get back in shape after a layoff.

For now, he’s focused on completing his physical therapy, which he sees as key to safely beginning to work out again.

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  • Susan

    Love getting a peek into the lives of jockeys, trainers, and backstretch workers. Thanks!

  • Graustark

    Excellent article.

  • http://www.facebook.com/FrankieLovato Frankie Lovato

    Thank you for the great article and makes me proud to have developed the Equicizer! Ramon!

    • LINDA MARIE FIORE

      YOUR EQUICIZER CERTAINLY DOES SEEMS TO BE THE THING TO HELP JOCKEYS KEEP IN SHAPE!

  • anita carter

    Great article. I know most of the people who come to the track have never thought about this.Anita Carter

  • http://www.facebook.com/GrandmaJana Jana Harris

    Dylan Davis lookin good……..

  • Eddie Donnally

    Good article. The only that I would add is that jockeys need tremedous strength in their legs, particularly thighs. When I rode (for nearly 20 years) I could do a deep knee bend on a single leg. It’s been said about boxers that the legs go first. It also seems true of riders. Three or four days off and after dismounting my legs felt like noodles. Sadly, when I rode, much less was known about nutrition and the today’s supplements simply were not available. Often in the summer I would run while wearing a plastic rain jacket and pants next to my skin and several layers of clothes over them. I was running up and down the hills of Vermont while riding at Green Mountion Park in my “sweat clothes” and 90 degree heat when I saw a teenage girl swinging in a swing while she sang loudly with a doll baby in her arms. A question hit me. Who is really the mentally challenged one here?
    Eddie Donnally

  • Francis Bush

    Looking forward to his comeback. What a terrific jockey. He seems to be using his head exceptionally well. Getting physically back in shape requires a healthy mind to adjust also.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Lawrence-Vaccarelli/1262993417 Lawrence Vaccarelli

    wish him well and I hope he takes all the time he needs….he could have been dead or crippled for life……ramon your life/ family comes first…take your time and what will be will be.

  • http://www.facebook.com/handi.capper1 Handi Capper

    Thank you for the great article. http://www.tips1973.com

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